sulfate attack in concrete

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Sulfate Attack - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Sulfate attack is another possible deterioration mechanism of concrete. It can have endogenous origin (developing without any contribution from the environment) or exogenous origins (such as sulfates contained in the soils or in liquids) (Germain, 2008; Neville, 2004).In both cases, the consequence is some volume expansion owing to the delayed formation of ettringite, which is an expansive ...

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Sulfate Attack - Slag Cement

Sulfate attack is a common form of concrete deterioration. It occurs when concrete comes in contact with water containing sulfates (SO 4 ). Sulfates can be found in some soils (especially when arid conditions exist), in seawater, and in wastewater treatment plants. Waterborne sulfates react with hydration products of the tri-calcium aluminate ...

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Sulphate Attack on Concrete - Process and Control of ...

Nov 27, 2016  Sulphate attack on concrete is a chemical breakdown mechanism where sulphate ions attack components of the cement paste. The compounds responsible for sulphate attack on concrete are water-soluble sulphate-containing salts, such as alkali-earth (calcium, magnesium) and alkali (sodium, potassium) sulphates that are capable of chemically reacting ...

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An Overview on Sulfate Attack - ctlgroupqatar

Sulfate attack on concrete is a chemical breakdown mechanism where sulfate ions attack components of the cement paste. The compounds responsible for sulfate attack on concrete are water-soluble sulfate-containing salts, such as alkali-earth (calcium, magnesium) and alkali (sodium, potassium) sulfates that are capable of chemically reacting with components of concrete.

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Sulfate attack in concrete and mortar - Wikipedia

Cement hydration and strength development mainly depend on two silicate phases: tri-calcium silicate (C3S) (alite), and di-calcium silicate (C2S) (belite). Upon hydration, the main reaction products are calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2, written as CH in the cement chemist notation. C-S-H is the phase playing the role of the glue in the cement hardened paste and responsible of its cohesion. Cement also contains two aluminate phases: C3A and C4AF, respectively the tricalcium alu

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Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A ...

Jan 14, 2017  Internal sulfate attack occurs when a source of sulfate is incorporated in the concrete when mixing like excess gypsum in cement, sulfate in the

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Sulphate attack in Concrete, Its Effects, Causes and ...

Jul 17, 2016  Magnesium sulfate attacks calcium silicate hydrate as well as calcium hydroxide and calcium aluminate hydrate. The consequences of sulfate attack include not only disruptive expansion and cracking, but also loss of strength of concrete due to the loss of cohesion in the hydrated cement paste and of adhesion between it and the aggregate particles.

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Sulfate Attack - What Why Avoid - Structural Guide

Sulfate attack is the reaction of the sulfate ions with the concrete and producing new formation within the concrete. As a result, the combination of chemical compositions is created and they tend to increase the internal volume of the concrete leading to internal stresses. Such expansions cause cracking, loss of strength of concrete, loss of ...

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Sulphate Attack on Concrete and Its Prevention ...

Apr 22, 2020  INTRODUCTION. Sulfate attack is a complex form of deterioration that has damaged concrete structures throughout the world. Sulfate attack is particularly complex because the source of sulfates can be external or internal (delayed ettringite formation), the distress can be chemical in nature, due to alteration of hydration of products, or physical in nature, due to phase changes in the ...

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Sulfate Attack of Concrete SpringerLink

Sep 20, 2012  Abstract. Cements have long been known to undergo deterioration in sulfate-rich service environments. Yet the mechanism of attack has not been universally agreed and, arguably of even greater importance, test procedures to measure sulfate attack and specifications for sulfate-resistant formulations are not agreed, or are disputed.

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Sulphate attack in Concrete, Its Effects, Causes and ...

Jul 17, 2016  Magnesium sulfate attacks calcium silicate hydrate as well as calcium hydroxide and calcium aluminate hydrate. The consequences of sulfate attack include not only disruptive expansion and cracking, but also loss of strength of concrete due to the loss of cohesion in the hydrated cement paste and of adhesion between it and the aggregate particles.

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What is sulfate attack? - Beton Consulting Engineers

Jun 07, 2021  Concrete in certain environments is subject to sulfate attack. These include seawater, some industrial environments, sanitary sewers, and sulfate-bearing soils and groundwater. The latter commonly occur in the western United States and the prairie provinces of Canada, as well as in other parts of the world.

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Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A ...

Jan 14, 2017  Internal sulfate attack occurs when a source of sulfate is incorporated in the concrete when mixing like excess gypsum in cement, sulfate in the

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Deterioration Process of Concrete Exposed to Internal ...

The concentration of sulfate ions in concrete was not enough to form new a phase of gypsum. During the process of internal sulfate attack, the content of gypsum decreased and the content of ettringite increased. Ettringite was the main reason for the expansion damage of concrete.

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Intro to Sulfate Attack! - YouTube

Oct 30, 2018  Sulfate attack is one of the most miss understood concrete deterioration mechanism. The video explains how there are two forms of sulfate attack. The first...

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Physical Salt Attack on Concrete, Part 2

sulfate attack on the concrete. 2. Composition of portland cement was less important as it relates to performance in sulfate solutions. 3. The salt crystallization process was a major cause of concrete distress compared with the traditional hypothesis of chemical reaction of

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(PDF) CHLORIDE ION PERMEABILITY AND SULPHATE RESISTANCE

The concrete mixtures incorporated with greater proportion of GGBFS (for example, 75 and 85%), however, showed greater resistance to sulfate attack, irrespective of w/b (0.40 and 0.50) and moist ...

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Sulfate attack of concrete: Reliability analysis ...

title = "Sulfate attack of concrete: Reliability analysis", abstract = "To determine the expected long-term performance of concrete in a sulfate-rich environment, a reliability analysis is performed using a previously developed model and data collected over more than 40 years by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR).

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Acid, alkali and chloride resistance of binary, ternary ...

1 天前  Long-term sulfate attack on recycled aggregate concrete immersed in sodium sulfate solution for 10 years. Mater. Construcción, 70 (337) (2020), p. 212. Google Scholar. K. Snehal, B.B. Das, S. Kumar. Influence of integration of phase change materials on hydration and microstructure properties of nanosilica admixed cementitious mortar.

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Sulfate Attack of Concrete Request PDF

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) on concrete performance against external sulfate attack (ESA) is not yet fully known. In this paper, recycled aggregate concretes (RAC) with 0, 50 ...

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External Sulfate Attack Concrete Experts International

What is External Sulfate Attack? External sulfate attack is a chemical breakdown mechanism where sulfate ions from an external source attack components of the cement paste. Such attack can occur when concrete is in contact with sulfate containing water e.g. seawater, swamp water, ground water or

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What is sulfate attack? - Beton Consulting Engineers

Jun 07, 2021  Concrete in certain environments is subject to sulfate attack. These include seawater, some industrial environments, sanitary sewers, and sulfate-bearing soils and groundwater. The latter commonly occur in the western United States and the prairie provinces of Canada, as well as in other parts of the world.

Get price

Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A ...

Jan 14, 2017  Internal sulfate attack occurs when a source of sulfate is incorporated in the concrete when mixing like excess gypsum in cement, sulfate in the

Get price

Sulfate Attack of Concrete SpringerLink

Sep 20, 2012  Abstract. Cements have long been known to undergo deterioration in sulfate-rich service environments. Yet the mechanism of attack has not been universally agreed and, arguably of even greater importance, test procedures to measure sulfate attack and specifications for sulfate-resistant formulations are not agreed, or are disputed.

Get price

Sulfate attack of concrete: Reliability analysis ...

title = "Sulfate attack of concrete: Reliability analysis", abstract = "To determine the expected long-term performance of concrete in a sulfate-rich environment, a reliability analysis is performed using a previously developed model and data collected over more than 40 years by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR).

Get price

Sulfate Attack of Concrete Request PDF

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) on concrete performance against external sulfate attack (ESA) is not yet fully known. In this paper, recycled aggregate concretes (RAC) with 0, 50 ...

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sulfate attack - Deterioration of Concrete

Jan 24, 2017  Sulfate attack can be 'external' or 'internal'. External: due to penetration of sulfates in solution, in groundwater for example, into the concrete from outside.

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Sulfate damage to concrete floors on sulfate-bearing hardcore

4 Sulfate damage to concrete floors on sulfate-bearing hardcore Outline of the guidance document Sections 1 to 5 provide information on the mechanism of sulfate attack and where it is most likely to be found. Key points made are: • For deleterious sulfate attack to occur in a ground floor slab, the concrete

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HOW TO PROTECT CONCRETE FROM SULPHATE ATTACK? -

Feb 27, 2015  Sulphates present in soil or water can cause serious damages to concrete. The methods given below can be adopted to protect concrete from sulphate attack. Use of Sulphate Resisting Cement The most efficient method of resisting the sulphate attack is to use cement with the low C3A content. It has been found that a C3A []

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Chemical and Physical Sulfate Attack on Fly Ash Concrete ...

Jul 01, 2019  Abstract: Fly ash concrete mixtures were tested for the chemical and physical sulfate attack. Concrete mixtures consisting of ratios of fly ashes, Type I cement, silica fume, and ultra-fine fly ash (UFFA) were tested. Four exposure conditions were simulated by subjecting the concrete specimens to: 1) immersion in 5% Na2SO4 solution; 2) wet-dry ...

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(PDF) CHLORIDE ION PERMEABILITY AND SULPHATE RESISTANCE

The concrete mixtures incorporated with greater proportion of GGBFS (for example, 75 and 85%), however, showed greater resistance to sulfate attack, irrespective of w/b (0.40 and 0.50) and moist ...

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Sulfate Attack on Concrete (Modern Concrete Technology ...

Sulfate Attack on Concrete provides a comprehensive reference to this important subject. It covers: a short history of concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack, the origin of sulfates in concrete, the importance of appropriate concrete processing, forms and physical-chemical mechanisms of concrete deterioration due to sulfates, preventative measures, standardisation and numerous case ...

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Sulfate Attack on Concrete Taylor Francis Group

Oct 11, 2001  Sulfate Attack on Concrete provides a comprehensive reference to this important subject. It covers: a short history of concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack, the origin of sulfates in concrete, the importance of appropriate concrete processing, forms and physical-chemical mechanisms of concrete deterioration due to sulfates, preventative mea

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Acid, alkali and chloride resistance of binary, ternary ...

1 天前  Long-term sulfate attack on recycled aggregate concrete immersed in sodium sulfate solution for 10 years. Mater. Construcción, 70 (337) (2020), p. 212. Google Scholar. K. Snehal, B.B. Das, S. Kumar. Influence of integration of phase change materials on hydration and microstructure properties of nanosilica admixed cementitious mortar.

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Sulfate Attack on Concrete, Internal Attack, Delayed ...

SULFATE ATTACK is a chemical reaction between sulfate ions (+and accompanying-balanced cations or elements in their environment) and components of concrete (mortar, paste) which can have adverse ...

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